Milk is nature's ideal food for infants and growing children in our country, except in rare cases of lactose intolerance. The important place milk occupies in our diet has been recognized since Vedic times, and all modern research has only supported and reinforced this view. In fact, milk is now considered not only desirable but essential from the time the child is born. The baby is recommended to be breast-fed until it is weaned and thereafter given cow/buffalo/goat/sheep or similar domesticated mammal's milk till he or she reaches 12 years of age. 

The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended a minimum of 300 gms daily intake of milk for children between 1-3 years of age and 250 gms for those between 10-12 years, if they are vegetarian, and 250 gms and 200 gms for the same age groups of non-vegetarian children.
In our country, most such adults consume milk only as whiteners for tea and coffee, some dahi or buttermilk. 


Milk may be defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals, excluding that obtained within 15 days before or 5 days after calving or such periods as may be necessary to render the milk practically colostrums-free and containing the minimum prescribed percentages of milk fat and milk-solids-not-fat. In India,the term 'milk', when unqualified, refers to cow or buffalo milk, or a combination of the two. 

 Sl.No.  Species  Water  Fat     Protein  Lactose  Ash
 1  Cow   86.6  4.6  3.4  4.9  0.7
 2   Buffaloe  84.2   6.6  3.9  5.2  0.8



Milk is an almost ideal food. It has high nutritive value. It supplies body-building proteins, bone-forming minerals and health-giving vitamins and furnishes energy-giving lactose and milk fat. Besides supplying certain essential fatty acids, it contains the above nutrients in an easily digestible and assimilable form. All these properties make milk an important food for pregnant mothers, growing children, adolescents, adults, invalids, convalescents and patients alike.


Milk proteins are complete proteins of high quality, i.e. they contain all the essential amino-acids in fairly large quantities.


Practically all the mineral elements found in milk are essential for nutrition. Milk is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus, both of which, together with vitamin D, are essential for bone formation.


These are accessory food factors which are essential for normal growth, health and the reproduction of living organisms. Milk is a good source of Vitamin A (provided the cow is fed sufficient green feed and fodder), Vitamin D (provided the cow is exposed to enough sunlight), thiamine, riboflavin, etc. 

Fat (Ghee)

Milk Fat (lipid) plays a significant role in the nutritive value, flavour and physical properties of milk and milk products. Besides serving as a rich source of energy, fat contains significant amounts of so-called essential fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic). The most distinctive role which milk fat plays in dairy products concerns flavour. The rich pleasing flavour of milk lipids is not duplicated by any other type of fat. Milk fat imparts a soft body, smooth texture and rich taste to dairy products. Lastly, milk lipids undoubtedly enhance the consumer acceptability of foods; they also serve the best interests of human nutrition through the incentive of eating what tastes good.


The principal function of lactose (carbohydrate) is to supply energy. However, lactose also helps to establish a mildly acidic reaction in the intestine (which checks the growth of proteolytic bacteria) and facilitates assimilation.

Energy value

The energy-giving milk constituents and their individual contributions are as follows: 

 Milk fat  9.3 C/g
 Milk protein  4.1 C/g
 Milk sugar  4.1 C/g

Where 1 C (Food Calorie) = 1000 c (small calorie).
Note: The energy value of milk will vary with its composition. On an average, cow milk furnishes 75 C/100 g and buffalo milk 100 C/100g.

Effect of processing

Pasteurization carried out with reasonable care has no effect on vitamin A, carotene, riboflavin and a number of remaining vitamins 'B' and 'D'. 


A balanced diet is essential for proper health and growth. The role of milk and milk products in providing the nutrients required for a balanced diet is indicated below.

Nutrients  Purpose  Major Sources
 Proteins Essential for muscle building and Repair; give the body energy and heat. Meat, poultry, fish, milk,Cheese, beans, peas, nuts.
Carbohydrates Body energy and heat Bread, cereals, pastry, Sugar, vegetables, fruit
Fats Body energy and heat Butter, Ghee, Oils
Minerals Bone, teeth, body cells Dairy products, fruit, vegetables
Vitamin A Growth, health of the eyes, structure and function of the skin and mucous membrane. Fat-rich dairy products, eggs, spinach, carrots, tomatoes, Fish liver oils.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Growth, aids appetite, prevents beriberi, function of the nervous system. Whole grains, eggs, green vegetables, yeast, liver, kidney.
Vitamin B2(Riboflavin) Growth, health of skin and mouth, functioning of the eyes. Milk, cabbage, carrots, spinach, liver, eggs, yeast, lean meat, prunes.
Niacin Functioning of the stomach, intestines and nervous system. Meat, heart,kidney, liver, eggs, fish, milk, peanuts, yeast
Vitamin C Aids bones and teeth, prevents scurvy. Citrus fruit, maize, tomatoes, lettuce, cabbage.
Vitamin D Aids in calcium-absorption which strengthens bones, prevents rickets. Eggs, milk, fish liver oils.



In order to meet the requirement of different segment of consumers and their demands for more convenience, KMF introduced Tetra-fino packaging of milk with variants in the market.

During the process of UHT, milk is subjected to temperature of 137 deg. C.grade for 4 seconds and cooled instantly which retains all the vitamins and nutritional value of milk providing zero bacteria product which needs no boiling. The milk is packed in 6 layer tamper proofed Tetra-pack packaging which prevents the milk from spoilage due to sunlight, bacteria, germs and oxygen, thus ensuring freshness and purity of milk is retained when packed. The milk can be stored without refrigeration for 60 days in fino-packaging and 120 days in brik packaging.

We have introduced 4 variants to the market, viz., Nandini Goodlife (3.5% Fat, 8.5% SNF), Nandini Full Cream Milk (12% Fat, 9% SNF) and Nandini Smart (1.5% Fat, 9% SNF). Nandini Slim (with less than 0.5% fat and 9% SNF) targeting health conscious consumers is introduced during May 2002.